The Society was established in 1955 by W. Horsley Gantt at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Early meetings were held in the Baltimore-New York area, but as the membership started to assume an international character, annual meetings were held abroad as well as through the United States. Membership includes physicians, PhDs, clinicians and scientists. Thus, the Society fosters an integrative scientific approach and encourages scientists to adopt it in publications and in presentations. The Society’s interest range from basic to clinical science activities. Its annual scientific meeting allows open and sometimes heated discussion of current issues in behavioral neuroscience and learning, at both basic and applied levels.